James J Whitehead,
Researcher getting better
40A Josephine Avenue London SW2 2LA
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Dear Nicholas Bennett,
In reply to your question.
"Q7 Why does HIV-specific RNA levels correspond to the rate of CD4 T cell loss?  "
I am aware that many doctors and scientist think that the CD4 and "hiv-specific RNA" levels always/usually correspond. Indeed we are led to believe that when the "hiv -specific-RNA" levels go down when patients are on ARV therapy that the CD4 goes up.
However this is not true. I have seen and know people who have high "hiv-specific-RNA" levels and the CD4 significantley increases and vice versa .
If as you claim the CD4 is always linked to "hiv-specific-RNA" levels how do you explain the following and if CD4 is so important why was this study not replicated on a much larger scale ? The only side effect seems to be the patients where ill less, hospitalised less and felt better.
"In HIV-1-infected subjects, long-term infusions of L-carnitine produced substantial increases in the rate and absolute counts of CD4 and, to a lesser degree, of CD8 lymphocytes. This was paralleled by a reduced frequency of apoptotic cells of both subgroups and a decline in the levels of ceramide. No clinically relevant change of HIV-1 viremia was observed. " (1)
"(1) each subject had to be living in the community of San Patrignano,24 which is devoted to the rescue of drug addicts and, (2) each individual had rejected the opportunity of antiretroviral treatment despite experiencing a progressive decline in CD4 cell counts." (1)
"Remarkably, most of the above modifications occurred with only moderate (± 0.5 log maximum) changes in the plasma viral load, with the exception of one patient, in whom HIV-viremia increased by 1.1 log, but the same individuals showed a significant increase in CD4 cell counts and subjectively reported an increased sense of well-being and resistance to fatigue. Taken together, our data suggest that long-term L-carnitine administration may have a substantial impact on the chief immunologic abnormality associated with HIV-1 infection, the loss of CD4 T cells, through downmodulating the generation of ceramide and reducing the rate of apoptotic lymphocyte death, without affecting the HIV-1 viremia levels, thus suggesting that a dissociation exists between changes in viremia and CD4 depletion" (1)
IF apoptosis (cell death) has little to do with aids as you have suggested why do the ceramide levels also drop corresponding to an increase in CD4 ?
Also is true yes or no that interlukin 2 (IL-2)has been used to culture hiv and that it increases "hiv-specific-RNA" levels while at the same time increasing CD4 Levels ?
"One theoretical concern of IL-2 treatment in HIV+ patients is related to its ability to induce cellular activation. HIV infection, in fact, is accompanied by a chronic activation of the immune system; such chronic activation has been proposed as a mechanism by which continued virus replication is facilitated (3, 15).
Some clinical trials with IL-2 have been performed in HIV patients. Kovacs et al. (18) and Davey et al. (31) have shown that intermittent administration of high doses of IL-2 i.v. (18 MUI/d) and/or s.c. (3-18 MUI/d) gave a significant increase of CD4 counts in asymptomatic patients. The side effects reported in earlier studies (32), like capillary leak, severe flu-like symptoms, and increased viral load were less relevant in subsequent studies, especially when a subcutaneous route of administration has been used (31).
In our experience, intermediate doses of subcutaneous IL-2 (6 MUI/d, days 1-5 and 8-12 of a 28-d cycle, for a total of six cycles) were well tolerated as an outpatient regimen: only mild constitutional effects were observed and all the treated patients performed their usual daily activities. In conclusion, the feasibility of our therapeutic schedule was superimposable with the other trials using subcutaneous IL-2 administration (17, 31). When the effects of IL-2 treatment on CD4 cell counts are analyzed, the use of ultra low doses of IL-2 was unable to obtain a statistically significant increase of CD4 cell counts (17); on the contrary, our therapeutic regimen and that described by Kovacs et al. (18) produce a significant increase in these cell numbers.
Concerning the possible enhancing effects of IL-2 administration on HIV viremia, only two of our patients showed a transient increase of viral load after the first and third cycle; these results are consistent with previous observations (18, 31). " .(2)
How much does IL-2 cost? What is the average increase in CD4 seen with IL-2 therapy in patients with hiv or the diseases that are sometimes called aids?
I wonder what might happen to "hiv-specific-RNA" levels if Il-2 therapy was used on its own without ARV therapy ?
I am also aware of some agents that greatley lower "hiv-specific-RNA" Levels to "undetectable" and have no effect on CD4. Presented by Luc Montaignier to the European Parliament, I will add that when I have a translation available as well as some very interesting data presented by Prof Luc Montaignier regarding glutathione and mixing antioxidants with combo.For now heres a small but interesting study on the possible benefits of such a strategy if you really believe CD4's are that important .
On a personal note my CD4's increased from 33 to over 200 and viral- loads dropped from 200,000 plus to "undetectable" and I am still pretty much the same even my minute pathetic KS is the same , but the Candida Albicans has shifted I thinks thats because combo particulary P.I's have a direct effect on it so theres another positive effect of P.I.'s, but I wonder if that effects the "hiv-specific-RNA" levels as well after all I am told by mainstream doctors that non hiv infections syphilis for instance (4) as well as many others increase "hiv-specific-RNA" levels and decrease CD4's they are not "dissidents" either I assure you ?
"On the basis of these studies we conclude that lower rates of oropharyngeal candidiasis in individuals receiving potent anti-retroviral therapy could reflect not only an improvement in the immune system but also direct inhibition of Candida secretory aspartic proteases by HIV protease inhibitors." (3)
Last Question is it true that above normal levels of apoptosis can induce hypergammaglobulinemia ?
James J whitehead
Clinical trials volunteer
Member www.altheal.org and www.aidsmythexposed.com
1.Blood, Vol. 91 No. 10 (May 15), 1998: pp. 3817-3824
Effect of L-Carnitine on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection- Associated Apoptosis: A Pilot Study By Sonia Moretti, Edoardo Alesse, Luisa Di Marzio, Francesca Zazzeroni, Barbara Ruggeri, Sonia Marcellini, Giuseppe Famularo, Seth M. Steinberg, Antonio Boschini, M. Grazia Cifone, and Claudio De Simone
2.J. Clin. Invest. Volume 100, Number 11, December 1997, 2737-2743
Effects of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 Therapy on CD4 Subsets and In Vitro Cytokine Production in HIV+ Subjects Paolo De Paoli*, Stefania Zanussi*, Cecilia Simonelli, Maria Teresa Bortolin*, Monica D'Andrea*, Cinzia Crepaldi*, Renato Talamini§, Manola Comar, Mauro Giacca, and Umberto Tirelli
* Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Virology, Department of AIDS Medical Oncology, and § Department of Epidemiology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy; and Department of Molecular Medicine, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 34100 Trieste, Italy
3.J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Nov;113(5):747-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=10571729&dopt=abstract
Competing interests: Clinical trials volunteer member www.altheal.org