James J Whitehead,
40A Joseephine Avenue London SW2 2LA
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Dear Nicholas Bennett,
In reply to
"My personal take on the GSH issue is hinted at in the post Mr Whitehead made. Pre-HAART HIV-infected patients appear to have lower levels of GSH and (interestingly enough) the stereotypical "antioxidant" vitamins. It seems clear that HIV itself induces GSH reduction itself, either directly or through the chronic overstimulation of the cellular immune system (a hyper-catabolic state).
It is possibe you are right, there is evidence that if hiv exists that HIV-1 TAT GP120 induces a condition of oxidative stress and depletes glutathione and other antioxidants also related gp41=selenium . ( I am aware that my last post might looking at it from your point of view confirm your position in hiv's role in causation).
"HIV-1 encodes for one of the human glutathione peroxidases. As a consequence, as it is replicated, its genetic needs cause it to deprive HIV-1 seropositive individuals not only of glutathione peroxidase, but also of the four basic components of this selenoenzyme, namely selenium, cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan. Eventually this depletion process causes severe deficiencies of all these substances. These, in turn, are responsible for the major symptoms of AIDS which include immune system collapse, greater susceptibility to cancer and myocardial infarction, muscle wasting, depression, diarrhea, psychosis and dementia. As the immune system fails, associated pathogenic cofactors become responsible for a variety of their own unique symptoms. Any treatment for HIV/AIDS must, therefore, include normalization of body levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan. Although various clinical trials have improved the health of AIDS patients by correcting one or more of these nutritional deficiencies, they have not, until the present, been addressed together. Physicians involved in a selenium and amino-acid field trial in Botswana, however, are reporting that this nutritional protocol reverses AIDS in 99% of patients receiving it, usually within three weeks."(13)
And or that hiv plus cofactors (alcohol ,drug abuse,malnutrition, AZT and related compounds,radiation therapy,malabsorbtion,digestive problems) can cause oxidative stress and depletion of gluthathione and other antioxidants like selenium ,glutamine ect.""A vicious cycle has been envisaged in which undernourished HIV- infected persons have micronutrient deficiencies, leading to further immunosuppression and oxidative stress and subsequent acceleration of HIV replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion".(4) " “There is a similarity between the immune deficiency, multiple infections, and severe weigh loss seen in AIDS patients, and the association of protein caloric malnutrition (PCM) with reduced resistance to infection observed in malnourished children, particularly in the Third World.” “It is also possible that nutritional deficiency may play a significant role in the clinical course of the immunodeficient state.” “These similarities between AIDS and PCM suggest that nutrition may contribute to the immunodeficient state. The immunodeficiency in children with PCM can be reversed by nutritional rehabilitation, which suggests that restoration of nutritional state may be a useful adjunct to therapy for AIDS patients” (36)." (5)(1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10).
However wasting that can be defined as aids can be stopped and very successfully reversed in people with aids and hiv (and cancer patients) with or without combination therapy even in the presence of very high viral loads, low CD4's (-50)and aids defining diseases/conditions with the use of non toxic agents such as undenurtured whey proteins,l-glutamine,l- arginine,HMB NAC , antioxidants, n-3 fatty acids. It is vital that wasting is treated and prevented because in my view it is the best predictor of illness/disease/death. Scientists and doctors have to address this condition for the mental and physical well being of patients.(5,4,10,11,12,13)
In Reply to
"As such, it may very well be true that mere CD4 counts alone are not the whole story, and furthermore the situation may be a double-edged sword. The lower the CD4 count, the greater the progression and (presumably) the worse the GSH situation. They may be no need to choose between the hypotheses, since they're not mutually exclusive! "
Here I am in agreement with Nicholas and as regards CD4 I made an over simplification. I think its true that there is an association between low GSH and low CD4's but that this association is not 100% either. I think low GSH in the presence of oxidation does lead to apoptosis and shifts in TH1 and TH2 balances therefor lowering CD4's. The point I meant to make as regards CD4's is that aids defining diseases can be halted and reversed in the presence of low CD4's like wasting and KS. Wasting and KS can occur in people with high CD4's well within "normal" range and vice versa can be absent/halted/reversed in the presence of low CD4's with pro GSH agents,antioxidants,amino acids,micro nutritrients.I think Nicholas is right that they may not be mutually exclusive, indeed I think they are related/linked to each other, but I believe from what I have read in medical litature and personal observations on friends that GSH is more important in causation and treatment than CD4's alone.
Just to clarify a point I made in my last post "On a personal note I have restarted combination therapy this time with antioxidants and I am not and have never been against the provision of these agents to anyone in the world." Its true I have restarted combination therapy however this is not because of my very lazy pathetic KS or any other medical condition, it was due to fiancial constraints and intense pressure from many concerned well meaning friends to restart and also because I hate disagreeing with people.
More important when I said I am not against provision of combination therapy to anyone in the world this is true but I would also add that patients should also have a choices made available to them which includes nutritional interventions with or without combination therapies.
I hope that by supporting access to ARV treatments to anyone that needs them (as I have always done) that those lobbying for provision of ARV's also respect and support the rights of others to access treatments of there choice. I regard this as a human right, thats both for ARV treatments,TB treatments and nutritional treatments combined or alone.
Last point, I feel rather guilty that in my opinion we have not covered TB enough in regards to prevention, treatments and causes. As this is a major part of aids in Africa I hope we can go into greater detail of this disease as I feel we have not given it the prominance it deserves.
I would like thank Nicholas for his kind support for clinical trials and for his good wishes for my personal treatment strategy and would also like to add that I am very gratefull to him, Mr Christopher Noble, Peter Flegg,Tony Floyd,Gregory P Benvenuti,Eleni and the Perth Group,Chris Tyler, and most of all the editor for taking part and allowing this debate to take place. I personaly have learned a great deal from this debate and acknowledge I still have alot to learn and a alot of questions , puzzles to answer.
As regards causation Co-factors, hiv, or hiv plus co-factors I am keeping an open mind and can see and understand to a degree all "sides" ,points of view and beliefs. The only thing that I am certain of is that oxidative stress is pivatol in the causation of the diseases called aids, but understand that the causes/ causes of this oxidative stress is debatable and not proven beyond doubt at present. But I am certain that pro GSH agents, antioxidants,amino acids and micro nutritrients are powerfull weapons in treatning and preventing the diseases that can be called aids.
Best Wishes to all "sides"
James J Whitehead Clinnical trials volunteer
Member www.altheal.org and www.aidsmythexposed.com
1: Med Hypotheses. 1998 Aug;51(2):169-73.
The keys of oxidative stress in acquired immune deficiency syndrome apoptosis.
Romero-Alvira D, Roche E.
Servicio de Cardiologia, Residencia General de la Seguridad Social, Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db= pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9881826
2.Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 Mar 1;351(1):17-26. Glutathione depletion associated with the HIV-1 TAT protein mediates the extracellular appearance of acidic fibroblast growth factor. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?c md=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=950191 9&dopt=Abstract
3.Montagnier et al (1997) Oxidative protein damage and degradation in lymphocytes from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176:655-64
4.Taken from editorial New England Journal of Medicine July 1 2004. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/351/1/78#R8
5.NUTRITIONAL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF AIDS SCIENTIFIC BASES
Southern African Development Community (SADC) Health Ministers Meeting Johannesburg, South Africa January 20-21, 2003
6.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Sep;45(9):2906-14.
7.Life Sci. 2004 Nov 19;76(1):47-56.
AZT induces oxidative damage to cardiac mitochondria: protective effect of vitamins C and E.
de la Asuncion JG, Del Olmo ML, Gomez-Cambronero LG, Sastre J, Pallardo FV, Vina J.
Departament of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University Clinical Hospital, Valencia, Spain. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15501479 8. European Journal of Biochemistry Volume 269 Issue 11 Page 2782 - June 2002 doi:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02954.x
Azidothymidine causes functional and structural destruction of mitochondria, glutathione deficiency and HIV-1 promoter sensitization http://www.blackwell- synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0014- 2956&date=2002&volume=269&issue=11&spage=2782 9.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/gui/show/NCT00069134 10. Some immune stimulating treatments and the scientific bases for them John Kirkham and James Whitehead http://www.altheal.org/treatments/oxidative.htm 11. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2004 Mar-Apr;28(2):65-75.
Supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta- methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15080599 12.James Whitehead personal experience with massive weight loss and weight gain http://groups.msn.com/aidsmythexposed/healthissues.msnw?ac tion=get_message&mview=0&ID_Me ssage=10664&LastModified=4675504453307338586
13.Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(4):549-53. .How HIV-1 causes AIDS: implications for prevention and treatment.
Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3050, Victoria BC, Canada V8W 3P5. email@example.com http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15050105
Competing interests: member www.altheal.org, clinical trials volunteer