Re: Source for 99+% accuracy claim 24 November 2004
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Brian T Foley,
HIV Researcher
Los Alamos National Lab Los Alamos NM 87545 USA

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Re: Re: Source for 99+% accuracy claim

There are at least dozens of ELISA tests that are commercially marketed.
Most are used in conjunction with a western blot which is done only on
the sera that are positive on the ELISA, because the ELISA is tuned to be
highly sensitive (low false positive rate, but at a trade-off of a higher false
positive rate). In many countries, two or more ELISAs are done to eliminate
most false positves, because this is cheaper and quicker than doing a
western blot on the positive ELISAs.

Here are a few of the papers that have been published in peer reviewed journals.

Meless H, Tegbaru B, Messele T, Tilahun T, Dorigo-Zetsma W, Sanders E, Wolday D.
Evaluation of rapid assays for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Ethiopia.
Ethiop Med J. 2002 Apr;40 Suppl 1:27-36.
PMID: 12802829

Urassa W, Nozohoor S, Jaffer S, Karama K, Mhalu F, Biberfeld G.
Evaluation of an alternative confirmatory strategy for the diagnosis of
HIV infection in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, based on simple rapid assays.
J Virol Methods. 2002 Feb;100(1-2):115-20.
PMID: 11742658

Koblavi-Deme S, Maurice C, Yavo D, Sibailly TS, N'guessan K, Kamelan-Tano Y,
Wiktor SZ, Roels TH, Chorba T, Nkengasong JN.
Sensitivity and specificity of human immunodeficiency virus rapid serologic assays and
testing algorithms in an antenatal clinic in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
J Clin Microbiol. 2001 May;39(5):1808-12.
PMID: 11325995

Nkengasong JN, Maurice C, Koblavi S, Kalou M, Yavo D, Maran M, Bile C, N'guessan K,
Kouadio J, Bony S, Wiktor SZ, Greenberg AE.
Evaluation of HIV serial and parallel serologic testing algorithms in Abidjan, Cote
AIDS. 1999 Jan 14;13(1):109-17.
PMID: 10207552

Urassa WK, Bredberg-Raden U, Mbena E, Palsson K, Minja E, Lema RA, Pallangyo K,
Mhalu FS, Biberfeld G.
Alternative confirmatory strategies in HIV-1 antibody testing.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5(2):170-6.
PMID: 1732510

Portincasa P, Conti G, Zannino T, Visalli S, Chezzi C.
Radioimmune western blotting in comparison with conventional western blotting,
second and third generation ELISA assays for the serodiagnosis of
HIV-1 infection.
New Microbiol. 1994 Jul;17(3):169-76.
PMID: 7968651

7: Gresenguet G, Tevi-Benissan C, Payan C, Pascal B, Matta M, Dragon MA, Belec L.
[Alternative strategy for the diagnosis of HIV infection in sub-saharan Africa.
Value of the sequential combination of the ELISA test and a 2nd generation rapid
Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1993;86(4):236-42. French.
PMID: 8292910

Phili R, Vardas E.
Evaluation of a rapid human immunodeficiency virus test at two community clinics
in Kwazulu-Natal.
S Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;92(10):818-21.
PMID: 12432808

Laleman G, Kambale M, Van Kerckhoven I, Kapila N, Konde M, Selemani U,
Piot P, van der Groen G.
A simplified and less expensive strategy for confirming anti HIV-1 screening results
in a diagnostic laboratory in Lubumbashi, Zaire.
Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1991 Dec;71(4):287-94.
PMID: 1789703

Kline RL, Dada A, Blattner W, Quinn TC.
Diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection by two rapid assays in
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994 Jun;7(6):623-6.
PMID: 8176645

Nogueira SA, Lambert JS, Albuquerque AL, Rodrigues R, Reis S, Bornia R,
Dias M, Barbosa R, Sztanjbock D, Santos AL, Blattner W, Constantine NT.
Assessment of a rapid HIV test strategy during labor: a pilot study from Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.
J Hum Virol. 2001 Sep-Oct;4(5):278-82.
PMID: 11907385

Ceballos A, Devito C, Pampuro S, Gomez Carrillo M, Libonatti O, Martinez Peralta L.
[Evaluation of indirect immunofluorescence as a supplementary test for the diagnosis
of HIV-1 infection]
Rev Argent Microbiol. 1998 Apr-Jun;30(2):59-63. Spanish.
PMID: 9744031

Carvalho MB, Hamerschlak N, Vaz RS, Ferreira OC Jr.
Risk factor analysis and serological diagnosis of HIV-1/HIV-2 infection in a
Brazilian blood donor population: validation of the World Health Organization
strategy for HIV testing.
AIDS. 1996 Sep;10(10):1135-40.
PMID: 8874631

Ketema F, Zeh C, Edelman DC, Saville R, Constantine NT.
Assessment of the performance of a rapid, lateral flow assay for the detection of
antibodies to HIV.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 May 1;27(1):63-70.
PMID: 11404522

Constantine NT, Ketema F.
Rapid confirmation of HIV infection.
Int J Infect Dis. 2002 Sep;6(3):170-7.
PMID: 12718830

Thongkrajai P, Kaewmart R.
Development and assessment of ELISA for serodiagnosis of HIV-infection.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998 Dec;29(4):763-6.
PMID: 10772561

Kannangai R, Ramalingam S, Pradeepkumar S, Damodharan K, Sridharan G.
Hospital-based evaluation of two rapid human immunodeficiency virus antibody
screening tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Sep;38(9):3445-7.
PMID: 10970399

Neifer S, Molz B.
[Retrospective evaluation of western blot for detection of early HIV infections]
Gesundheitswesen. 1995 Aug-Sep;57(8-9):489-93. German.
PMID: 7496105

Reynolds SJ, Ndongala LM, Luo CC, Mwandagalirwa K, Losoma AJ,
Mwamba KJ, Bazepeyo E, Nzilambi NE, Quinn TC, Bollinger RC.
Evaluation of a rapid test for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 and 2 in the setting of multiple transmitted viral subtypes.
Int J STD AIDS. 2002 Mar;13(3):171-3.
PMID: 11860693

Competing interests: None declared