Where is the virus? 9 July 2004
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Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos,
Department of Medical Physics, Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australia, 6001,
Valendar F Turner, John Papadimitriou, Barry Page, David Causer, Helman Alfonso, Sam Mhlongo, Todd Miller, Christian Fiala

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Re: Where is the virus?


Where is the virus?


In his rapid response "Notes from Hans Gelderblom, Nicholas Bennett wrote: "There are several logistical problems associated with EM of HIV from blood samples as well. The best way to ensure particle stability "in the field" is to fix the sample in higher than 0.5% Glutaraldehyde (GA), to prevent shedding of gp120 knobs. However, this level of GA prevents immunolabelling which he wanted to do to characterise virally-incorporated cellular MHC molecules, but could also be used to label virion proteins. As such there is almost a mutually exclusive situation where you can either keep the virus intact, or analyse it using immunoEM".


We have never asked for evidence which proves the existence of "HIV" particles studded with knobs (after all, Hans Gelderblom could not prove the existence of cell-free particles in cultures having knobs). Just an EM showing all the other morphological characteristics attributed to the "HIV" particles or even to retroviruses would be a good first step.  Neither have we asked for immunoblotting of such particles.  To do immuno EM of such particles first there must be proof for their existence.  If Nicholas Bennett interprets Hans Gelderblom's "notes" correctly (we have no doubt that he does), it is obvious that Hans Gelderblom spared no effort to prove the existence of "HIV" particles in plasma.  But in spite of his experience, expertise and diligence he was not able to do so.  He even attempted "to look at virus from pelleted samples (rather than the 2-drop method mentioned in the previously quoted articles) which would have massively concentrated the sample, but even this failed".


Since:  (a) many AIDS patients are reported as having 106 particles/ml;

            (b) EM detection of viral particles in plasma with concentration lower than 106 per ml is possible;

why have these particles never been found in plasma of HIV positive or AIDS patients?


We agree with Nicholas Bennett that Hans Gelderblom's opinion is a "highly experienced opinion".  There can only be one reason for his failure to find "HIV" particles in plasma—they are not there to be found.


The whole notion of AIDS as an infectious and sexually transmitted disease, that is, the “HIV” theory of AIDS, depends on the existence of infectious “HIV” particles in blood.  If “It’s the virus stupid” and if “…virtually all HIV-1-infected individuals, regardless of clinical stage, exhibit persistent plasma viraemia in the range of 102 to 107 virions per ml” (1), where is the virus?



1.         Wei, X Ghosh, S K Taylor, M Johnson, V A Emini, E A Deutsch, P Lifson, J D Bonhoeffer, S Nowak, M A Hahn, B H Saag, M S Shaw, G M. Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 1995;373:117-122


Competing interests: None declared