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Brian T Foley,
HIV Researcher
Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545

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The Perth group wrote:
Is it true that the poly(A)-RNA is not specific to retroviruses? Yes or No?

Yes. As far as I know, all living organisms on earth use polyadenylation of RNA in the creation of messenger RNA. See [91] for example. The poly-A tail on mRNA is not specific, all mRNAs have it. It is the sequence of the bases in the rest of the RNA, that is specific to each gene (and often to each allele of a gene) and each organism (sometimes even unique to individuals within a given species or similar grouping of related organisms).

The Perth group wrote:
We are also pleased that Brian Foley agrees with us regarding our definition of an infectious molecular clone.

I am pleased that the Perth group now considers this to be “their definition”, after pretending for so long that they did not understand anything about infectious molecular clones of viruses.

The Perth group wrote:
Would Brian Foley please give us a study and a few confirmatory studies where the existence of an “infectious molecular clone” of “HIV” has been proven.

Not all of the papers below [1-90] report on infectious molecular clones of HIV-1 or HIV-2. I have included a few papers reporting on infectious molecular clones of SIVs, SHIVs, BIV and FIV in order to illustrate that the techniques used in the study of HIVs are not unique to HIVs. I have also included papers which describe some molecular clones which are not infectious, or not fully replication-competent, such as the hybrids described in [1], in order to illustrate the fact that not just any DNA can produce fully competent virus.


1: Steidl S, Schule S, Muhlebach MD, Stitz J, Boller K,
Cichutek K, Schweizer M.
Genetic engineering of onco/lentivirus hybrids results in
formation of infectious but not of replication-competent
viruses. J Gen Virol. 2004 Mar;85(Pt 3):665-78.
PMID: 14993652

2: Kuhmann SE, Pugach P, Kunstman KJ, Taylor J, Stanfield RL,
Snyder A, Strizki JM, Riley J, Baroudy BM, Wilson IA,
Korber BT, Wolinsky SM, Moore JP.
Genetic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 escape from a small-molecule CCR5 inhibitor.
J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):2790-807.
PMID: 14990699

3: Reed-Inderbitzin E, Maury W.
Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled
by LTR sequences.
Virology. 2003 Sep 30;314(2):680-95.
PMID: 14554095

4: Komoto S, Tsuji S, Ibrahim MS, Li YG, Warachit J, Taniguchi K,
Ikuta K.
The vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plays a
protective role against virus-induced apoptosis in
primaryCD4(+) T lymphocytes.
J Virol. 2003 Oct;77(19):10304-13.
PMID: 12970415

5: Gonzalez LM, Brindeiro RM, Tarin M, Calazans A, Soares MA,
Cassol S, Tanuri A.
In vitro hypersusceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 subtype C protease to lopinavir.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Sep;47(9):2817-22.
PMID: 12936979

6: Buckley KA, Li PL, Khimani AH, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Liska V,
Anderson DC,McClure HM, Ruprecht RM.
Convergent evolution of SIV env after independent inoculation
of rhesus macaques with infectious proviral DNA.
Virology. 2003 Aug 1;312(2):470-80.
PMID: 12919751

7: Marozsan AJ, Arts EJ.
Development of a yeast-based recombination cloning/system
for the analysis of gene products from diverse human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.
J Virol Methods. 2003 Aug;111(2):111-20.
PMID: 12880926

8: Rue SM, Roos JW, Amzel LM, Clements JE, Barber SA.
Hydrogen bonding at a conserved threonine in lentivirus
capsid is required for virus replication.
J Virol. 2003 Jul;77(14):8009-18.
PMID: 12829840

9: Richar N, Quan Y, Salomon H, Hsu M, Bedard J, Harrigan PR,
Rando R, Mansour T, Bowlin TL, Wainberg MA.
Selection and characterization of HIV-1 variants resistant
to the (+) and (-) enantiomers of 2'-deoxy-3'-oxa-4'-
thiocytidine (dOTC).
Antivir Ther. 1999;4(3):171-7.
PMID: 12731757

10: Kourtis AP, Ibegbu CC, Scinicariello F, Oh CY, McClure HM.
SHIV-KB9 infection of rhesus monkeys does not always cause
Disease: Contribution of host immune factors and thymic
Virology. 2002 Nov 10;303(1):47-57.
PMID: 12482657

11: Stoeckli TC, MaWhinney S, Uy J, Duan C, Lu J, Shugarts D,
Kuritzkes DR.
Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of biologically cloned
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from patients
treated with zidovudine and lamivudine.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Dec;46(12):4000-3.
PMID: 12435711

12: Takeuchi H, Suzuki Y, Tatsumi M, Hoshino H, Daar ES,
Koyanagi Y.
Isolation and characterization of an infectious HIV
type 1 molecular clone from a patient with primary
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Oct 10;18(15):1127-33.
PMID: 12402946

13: Mukai T, Komoto S, Kurosu T, Palacios JA, Li YG,
Auwanit W, Tatsumi M, Ikuta K.
Construction and characterization of an infectious molecular
clone derived from the CRF01_AE primary isolate of HIV
type 1.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 May 20;18(8):585-9.
PMID: 12036488

14: Tobiume M, Takahoko M, Yamada T, Tatsumi M, Iwamoto A,
Matsuda M.
Inefficient enhancement of viral infectivity and CD4
downregulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef
from Japanese long-term nonprogressors.
J Virol. 2002 Jun;76(12):5959-65.
PMID: 12021328

15: Krogstad P, Geng YZ, Rey O, Canon J, Ibarrondo FJ,
Ackerson B, Patel J, Aldovini A.
Human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid protein
polymorphisms modulate the infectivity of RNA packaging
Virology. 2002 Mar 15;294(2):282-8.
PMID: 12009869

16: Dehghani H, Brown CR, Plishka R, Buckler-White A,
Hirsch VM.
The ITAM in Nef influences acute pathogenesis of
AIDS-inducing simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVsm and
SIVagm without altering kinetics or extent of viremia.
J Virol. 2002 May;76(9):4379-89.
PMID: 11932405

17: Novelli P, Vella C, Oxford J, Daniels RS.
Construction and characterization of a full-length
HIV-1(92UG001) subtype D infectious molecular clone.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Jan 1;18(1):85-8.
PMID: 11804560

18: Zheng NN, Daniels RS.
Maintenance of glycoprotein-determined phenotype in an
HIV type 1 (pNL43) env gene-cassetting system.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Nov 1;17(16):1501-6.
PMID: 11709094

19: Ndung'u T, Lu Y, Renjifo B, Touzjian N, Kushner N,
Pena-Cruz V, Novitsky VA, Lee TH, Essex M.
Infectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus with
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C from an
African isolate: rhesus macaque model.
J Virol. 2001 Dec;75(23):11417-25.
PMID: 11689623

20: Gao F, Trask SA, Hui H, Mamaeva O, Chen Y, Theodore TS,
Foley BT, Korber BT, Shaw GM, Hahn BH.
Molecular characterization of a highly divergent HIV
type 1 isolate obtained early in the AIDS epidemic from
the Democratic Republic of Congo.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Aug 10;17(12):1217-22.
PMID: 11522191

21: Takahoko M, Tobiume M, Ishikawa K, Ampofo W, Yamamoto N,
Matsuda M, Tatsumi M.
Infectious DNA clone of HIV type 1 A/G recombinant
(CRF02_AG) replicable in peripheral blood mononuclear
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Jul 20;17(11):1083-7.
PMID: 11485626

22: Haddrick M, Brown CR, Plishka R, Buckler-White A,
Hirsch VM, Ginsberg H.
Biologic studies of chimeras of highly and moderately
virulent molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency
virus SIVsmPBj suggest a critical role for
envelope in acute AIDS virus pathogenesis.
J Virol. 2001 Jul;75(14):6645-59.
PMID: 11413332

23: Kusagawa S, Takebe Y, Yang R, Motomura K, Ampofo W,
Brandful J, Koyanagi Y, Yamamoto N, Sata T, Ishikawa K,
Nagai Y, Tatsumi M.
Isolation and characterization of a full-length molecular
DNA clone of Ghanaian HIV type 1 intersubtype A/G
recombinant CRF02_AG, which is replication competent
in a restricted host range.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 May 1;17(7):649-55.
PMID: 11375062

24: Ndung'u T, Renjifo B, Essex M.
Construction and analysis of an infectious human
Immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C molecular
J Virol. 2001 Jun;75(11):4964-72.
PMID: 11333875

25: Guan Y, Whitney JB, Detorio M, Wainberg MA.
Construction and in vitro properties of a series of
attenuated simian immunodeficiency viruses with all
accessory genes deleted.
J Virol. 2001 May;75(9):4056-67.
PMID: 11287555

26: Alexander L, Denekamp L, Czajak S, Desrosiers RC.
Suboptimal nucleotides in the infectious, pathogenic
simian immunodeficiency virus clone SIVmac239.
J Virol. 2001 Apr;75(8):4019-22.
PMID: 11264395

27: Zhang YJ, Zhang L, Ketas T, Korber BT, Moore JP.
HIV type 1 molecular clones able to use the
Bonzo/STRL-33 coreceptor for virus entry.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Feb 10;17(3):217-27.
PMID: 11177404

28: Jeeninga RE, Hoogenkamp M, Armand-Ugon M, de Baar M,
Verhoef K, Berkhout B.
Functional differences between the long terminal
repeat transcriptional promoters of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 subtypes A through G.
J Virol. 2000 Apr;74(8):3740-51.
PMID: 10729149

29: Ranjbar S, Bhattacharya U, Oram J, Stott EJ, Almond N.
Construction of infectious SIV/HIV-2 chimeras.
AIDS. 2000 Nov 10;14(16):2479-84.
PMID: 11101058

30: Adachi A, Tamaki M, Shimano R, Inubushi R, Naito T,
Yoshida K, Oshima Y, Kawamura M, Koyama AH.
Cell-dependent replication potentials of HIV-1 gag
Microbes Infect. 1999 Jul;1(9):671-6.
PMID: 10611744

31: Tang Y, Winkler U, Freed EO, Torrey TA, Kim W, Li H,
Goff SP, Morse HC 3rd.
Cellular motor protein KIF-4 associates with retroviral
J Virol. 1999 Dec;73(12):10508-13.
PMID: 10559369

32: Isaka Y, Sato A, Miki S, Kawauchi S, Sakaida H, Hori T,
Uchiyama T, Adachi A, Hayami M, Fujiwara T, Yoshie O.
Small amino acid changes in the V3 loop of human
immunodeficiency virus type 2 determines the coreceptor usage
for CXCR4 and CCR5.
Virology. 1999 Nov 10;264(1):237-43.
PMID: 10544150

33: Mochizuki N, Otsuka N, Matsuo K, Shiino T, Kojima A,
Kurata T, Sakai K, Yamamoto N, Isomura S, Dhole TN,
Takebe Y, Matsuda M, Tatsumi M.
An infectious DNA clone of HIV type 1 subtype C.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Sep 20;15(14):1321-4.
PMID: 10505681

34: Gutierrez-Rivas M, Ibanez A, Martinez MA, Domingo E,
Menendez-Arias L.
Mutational analysis of Phe160 within the "palm" subdomain
of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse
J Mol Biol. 1999 Jul 16;290(3):615-25.
PMID: 10395818

35: Kosalaraksa P, Kavlick MF, Maroun V, Le R, Mitsuya H.
Comparative fitness of multi-dideoxynucleoside-resistant
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in an In vitro
competitive HIV-1 replication assay.
J Virol. 1999 Jul;73(7):5356-63.
PMID: 10364282

36: Cheng-Mayer C, Brown A, Harouse J, Luciw PA, Mayer AJ.
Selection for neutralization resistance of the
simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF33A variant in
vivo by virtue of sequence changes in the extracellular
envelope glycoprotein that modify N-linked glycosylation.
J Virol. 1999 Jul;73(7):5294-300.
PMID: 10364275

37: Morin N, Cherry E, Li X, Wainberg MA.
Cotransfection of mutated forms of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 Gag-Pol with wild-type constructs can interfere
with processing and viral replication.
J Hum Virol. 1998 Mar-Apr;1(3):240-7.
PMID: 10195247

38: Verhoef K, Bauer M, Meyerhans A, Berkhout B.
On the role of the second coding exon of the HIV-1 Tat
protein in virus replication and MHC class I downregulation.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Nov 20;14(17):1553-9.
PMID: 9840288

39: Yoon K, Kestler HW, Kim S.
Growth properties of HSIVnef: HIV-1 containing the nef
gene from pathogenic molecular clone SIVmac239.
Virus Res. 1998 Sep;57(1):27-34.
PMID: 9833883

40: Ohgimoto S, Shioda T, Mori K, Nakayama EE, Hu H,
Nagai Y.
Location-specific, unequal contribution of the N glycans
in simian immunodeficiency virus gp120 to viral infectivity
and removal of multiple glycans without disturbing
J Virol. 1998 Oct;72(10):8365-70.
PMID: 9733886

41: Looney DJ, McClure J, Kent SJ, Radaelli A, Kraus G,
Schmidt A, Steffy K, Greenberg P, Hu SL, Morton WR,
Wong-Staal F.
A minimally replicative HIV-2 live-virus vaccine
protects M. nemestrina from disease after HIV-2(287)
Virology. 1998 Mar 1;242(1):150-60.
PMID: 9501043

42: Kraus G, Radaelli A, Talbott R, Leavitt M, Schmidt A,
Badel P, Bartz C, Morton W, Wong-Staal F, Looney DJ.
Characterization of a molecular clone of HIV type 2
infectious for Macaca nemestrina.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 1;14(1):65-77.
PMID: 9453253

43: Emiliani S, Fischle W, Ott M, Van Lint C, Amella CA,
Verdin E.
Mutations in the tat gene are responsible for human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 postintegration latency
in the U1 cell line.
J Virol. 1998 Feb;72(2):1666-70.
PMID: 9445075

44: Herbein G, Van Lint C, Lovett JL, Verdin E.
Distinct mechanisms trigger apoptosis in human
immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and in uninfected
bystander T lymphocytes.
J Virol. 1998 Jan;72(1):660-70.
PMID: 9420271

45: Sparger EE, Louie H, Ziomeck AM, Luciw PA.
Infection of cats by injection with DNA of a feline
immunodeficiency virus molecular clone.
Virology. 1997 Nov 10;238(1):157-60.
PMID: 9375019

46: Luo T, Livingston RA, Garcia JV.
Infectivity enhancement by human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 Nef is independent of its association with a
cellular serine/threonine kinase.
J Virol. 1997 Dec;71(12):9524-30.
PMID: 9371615

47: Verhoef K, Koper M, Berkhout B.
Determination of the minimal amount of Tat activity required
for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.
Virology. 1997 Oct 27;237(2):228-36.
PMID: 9356335

48: Du Z, Ilyinskii PO, Lally K, Desrosiers RC, Engelman A.
A mutation in integrase can compensate for mutations in the
Simian immunodeficiency virus att site.
J Virol. 1997 Nov;71(11):8124-32.
PMID: 9343162

49: Van Lint C, Amella CA, Emiliani S, John M, Jie T,
Verdin E.
Transcription factor binding sites downstream of the
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription start
site are important for virus infectivity.
J Virol. 1997 Aug;71(8):6113-27.
PMID: 9223506

50: Li X, Liang C, Quan Y, Chandok R, Laughrea M, Parniak MA,
Kleiman L, Wainberg MA.
Identification of sequences downstream of the primer binding
site that are important for efficient replication of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1.
J Virol. 1997 Aug;71(8):6003-10.
PMID: 9223491

51: Chen M, Singh MK, Balachandran R, Gupta P.
Isolation and characterization of two divergent infectious
molecular clones of HIV type 1 longitudinally obtained from a
seropositive patient by a progressive amplification
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997 Jun 10;13(9):743-50.
PMID: 9171218

52: Cannon PM, Matthews S, Clark N, Byles ED, Iourin O,
Hockley DJ, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ.
Structure-function studies of the human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 matrix protein, p17.
J Virol. 1997 May;71(5):3474-83.
PMID: 9094619

53: Laughrea M, Jette L, Mak J, Kleiman L, Liang C, Wainberg MA.
Mutations in the kissing-loop hairpin of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 reduce viral infectivity as
well as genomic RNA packaging and dimerization.
J Virol. 1997 May;71(5):3397-406.
PMID: 9094609

54: Hirsch V, Adger-Johnson D, Campbell B, Goldstein S,
Brown C, Elkins WR, Montefiori DC.
A molecularly cloned, pathogenic, neutralization-resistant
Simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVsmE543-3.
J Virol. 1997 Feb;71(2):1608-20.
PMID: 8995688

55: Phillips TR, Prospero-Garcia O, Wheeler DW, Wagaman PC,
Lerner DL, Fox HS, Whalen LR, Bloom FE, Elder JH,
Henriksen SJ.
Neurologic dysfunctions caused by a molecular clone of
feline immunodeficiency virus, FIV-PPR.
J Neurovirol. 1996 Dec;2(6):388-96.
PMID: 8972420

56: Bour S, Strebel K.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 envelope
protein is a functional complement to HIV type 1 Vpu that
enhances particle release of heterologous retroviruses.
J Virol. 1996 Dec;70(12):8285-300.
PMID: 8970948

57: Chen BK, Gandhi RT, Baltimore D.
CD4 down-modulation during infection of human T cells
with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves
independent activities of vpu, env, and nef.
J Virol. 1996 Sep;70(9):6044-53.
PMID: 8709227

58: Barnett SW, Legg HS, Sun Y, Klinger J, Blackbourn DJ,
Locher CP, Levy JA.
Molecular cloning of the human immunodeficiency virus
subtype 2 strain HIV-2UC2.
Virology. 1996 Aug 1;222(1):257-61.
PMID: 8806506

59: Palmer C, Balfe P, Fox D, May JC, Frederiksson R,
Fenyo EM, McKeating JA.
Functional characterization of the V1V2 region of
human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Virology. 1996 Jun 15;220(2):436-49.
PMID: 8661394

60: Yang JS, English RV, Ritchey JW, Davidson MG, Wasmoen T,
Levy JK, Gebhard DH, Tompkins MB, Tompkins WA.
Molecularly cloned feline immunodeficiency virus
NCSU1 JSY3 induces immunodeficiency in
specific-pathogen-free cats.
J Virol. 1996 May;70(5):3011-7.
PMID: 8627777

61: Quillent C, Borman AM, Paulous S, Dauguet C,
Clavel F.
Extensive regions of pol are required for efficient
human immunodeficiency virus polyprotein processing and
particle maturation.
Virology. 1996 May 1;219(1):29-36.
PMID: 8623542

62: Bour S, Schubert U, Peden K, Strebel K.
The envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency
virus type 2 enhances viral particle release: a Vpu-like
J Virol. 1996 Feb;70(2):820-9.
PMID: 8551620

63: Cannon PM, Byles ED, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ.
Conserved sequences in the carboxyl terminus of integrase
that are essential for human immunodeficiency virus type 1
J Virol. 1996 Jan;70(1):651-7.
PMID: 8523588

64: Wang WK, Essex M, Lee TH.
Single amino acid substitution in constant region 1 or
4 of gp120 causes the phenotype of a human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 variant with mutations in hypervariable regions
1 and 2 to revert.
J Virol. 1996 Jan;70(1):607-11.
PMID: 8523579

65: Huang M, Orenstein JM, Martin MA, Freed EO.
p6Gag is required for particle production from full-length
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 molecular clones
expressing protease.
J Virol. 1995 Nov;69(11):6810-8.
PMID: 7474093

66: Engelman A, Englund G, Orenstein JM, Martin MA, Craigie R.
Multiple effects of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 integrase on viral replication.
J Virol. 1995 May;69(5):2729-36.
PMID: 7535863

67: LaBranche CC, Sauter MM, Haggarty BS, Vance PJ, Romano J,
Hart TK, Bugelski PJ, Hoxie JA.
Biological, molecular, and structural analysis of a
cytopathic variant from a molecularly cloned simian
immunodeficiency virus.
J Virol. 1994 Sep;68(9):5509-22.
PMID: 8057433

68: Nishino Y, Nakaya T, Fujinaga K, Kishi M, Azuma I,
Ikuta K.
Persistent infection of MT-4 cells by human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 becomes increasingly likely with in vitro serial
passage of wild-type but not nef mutant virus.
J Gen Virol. 1994 Sep;75 ( Pt 9):2241-51.
PMID: 7521392

69: Dash B, McIntosh A, Barrett W, Daniels R.
Deletion of a single N-linked glycosylation site from
the transmembrane envelope protein of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 stops cleavage and
transport of gp160 preventing env-mediated fusion.
J Gen Virol. 1994 Jun;75 ( Pt 6):1389-97.
PMID: 8207403

70: el-Farrash MA, Kuroda MJ, Kitazaki T, Masuda T, Kato K,
Hatanaka M, Harada S.
Generation and characterization of a human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutant resistant to an HIV-1 protease
J Virol. 1994 Jan;68(1):233-9.
PMID: 8254733

71: Ivanoff LA, Looney DJ, McDanal C, Morris JF, Wong-Staal F,
Langlois AJ, Petteway SR Jr, Matthews TJ.
Alteration of HIV-1 infectivity and neutralization by a
single amino acid replacement in the V3 loop domain.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991 Jul;7(7):595-603.
PMID: 1768461

72: Haggerty S, Dempsey MP, Bukrinsky MI, Guo L, Stevenson M.
Posttranslational modifications within the HIV-1 envelope
glycoprotein which restrict virus assembly and CD4-dependent
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991 Jun;7(6):501-10.
PMID: 1931229

73: Kirchhoff F, Jentsch KD, Bachmann B, Stuke A, Laloux C,
Luke W, Stahl-Hennig C, Schneider J, Nieselt K, Eigen M,
et al.
A novel proviral clone of HIV-2: biological and
phylogenetic relationship to other primate immunodeficiency
Virology. 1990 Jul;177(1):305-11.
PMID: 2353457

74: Kestler H, Kodama T, Ringler D, Marthas M, Pedersen N,
Lackner A, Regier D, Sehgal P, Daniel M, King N, et al.
Induction of AIDS in rhesus monkeys by molecularly cloned
Simian immunodeficiency virus.
Science. 1990 Jun 1;248(4959):1109-12.
PMID: 2160735

75: Garvey KJ, Oberste MS, Elser JE, Braun MJ, Gonda MA.
Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of biologically
active proviruses of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus.
Virology. 1990 Apr;175(2):391-409.
PMID: 2183467

76: Klimkait T, Strebel K, Hoggan MD, Martin MA,
Orenstein JM.
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific protein
vpu is required for efficient virus maturation and release.
J Virol. 1990 Feb;64(2):621-9.
PMID: 2404139

77: Shibata R, Miura T, Hayami M, Ogawa K, Sakai H,
Kiyomasu T, Ishimoto A, Adachi A.
Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus
type 2 (HIV-2) genome in relation to HIV-1 and simian
immunodeficiency virus SIV (AGM).
J Virol. 1990 Feb;64(2):742-7.
PMID: 2296082

78: Bryant M, Ratner L.
Myristoylation-dependent replication and assembly of
human immunodeficiency virus 1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan;87(2):523-7.
PMID: 2405382

79: Shibata R, Miura T, Hayami M, Sakai H, Ogawa K,
Kiyomasu T, Ishimoto A, Adachi A.
Construction and characterization of an infectious DNA
clone and of mutants of simian immunodeficiency virus
isolated from the African green monkey.
J Virol. 1990 Jan;64(1):307-12.
PMID: 2293665

80: Ogawa K, Shibata R, Kiyomasu T, Higuchi I, Kishida Y, I
shimoto A, Adachi A.
Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus
vpr open reading frame.
J Virol. 1989 Sep;63(9):4110-4.
PMID: 2474678

81: Tersmette M, Winkel IN, Groenink M, Gruters RA, Spence RP,
Saman E, Van Der Groen G, Miedema F, Huisman JG.
Detection and subtyping of HIV-1 isolates with a panel
of characterized monoclonal antibodies to HIV p24gag.
Virology. 1989 Jul;171(1):149-55.
PMID: 2472701

82: Franchini G, Fargnoli KA, Giombini F, Jagodzinski L,
De Rossi A, Bosch M, Biberfeld G, Fenyo EM, Albert J,
Gallo RC, et al.
Molecular and biological characterization of a
replication competent human immunodeficiency type 2
(HIV-2) proviral clone.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Apr;86(7):2433-7.
PMID: 2648404

83: Boyd AL, Wood TG, Buckley A, Fischinger PJ, Gilden RV,
Gonda MA.
Microinjection and expression of an infectious proviral
clone and subgenomic envelope construct of a human
immunodeficiency virus.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1988 Feb;4(1):31-41.
PMID: 2835071

84: Srinivasan A, Goldsmith CS, York D, Anand R, Luciw P,
Schochetman G, Palmer E, Bohan C.
Studies on human immunodeficiency virus-induced
cytopathic effects: use of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD)
Arch Virol. 1988;99(1-2):21-30.
PMID: 3355373

85: Dewhurst S, Sakai K, Zhang XH, Wasiak A, Volsky DJ.
Establishment of human glial cell lines chronically
infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
Virology. 1988 Jan;162(1):151-9.
PMID: 3336939

86: Gendelman HE, Theodore TS, Willey R, McCoy J, Adachi A,
Mervis RJ, Venkatesan S, Martin MA.
Molecular characterization of a polymerase mutant
human immunodeficiency virus.
Virology. 1987 Oct;160(2):323-9.
PMID: 2444031

87: Luciw PA, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA.
Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus:
the orf-B region down-regulates virus replication.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar;84(5):1434-8.
PMID: 2434956

88: Fisher AG, Ratner L, Mitsuya H, Marselle LM, Harper ME,
Broder S, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F.
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Competing interests: None declared