Re: Re: Questions That Should Remain Unanswered by Peter Flegg 6 May 2004
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Brian T Foley,
HIV Researcher
Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545

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Re: Re: Re: Questions That Should Remain Unanswered by Peter Flegg

Julian Turningheart wrote:


Perhaps Mr. Floyd and his associates could provide, say, 1 to 20 references that individually, or in the aggregate, provide dispositive evidence for the sexual transmission of HIV.

It is my opinion that the 20 papers cited below provide proof positive that HIV-1 can be transmitted heterosexually. These are not the only 20 papers, nor the best 20 papers, but they are a representative sampling of just one type of evidence that has been used to determine that HIV-1 and HIV-2 are heterosexually transmitted between human individuals.

1: Pistello M, Del Santo B, Butto S, Bargagna M, Domenici R, Bendinelli M.
Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 corroborate the transmission
link hypothesis.
J Clin Virol. 2004 May;30(1):11-8.
PMID: 15072748

2: Kato S, Saito R, Hiraishi Y, Kitamura N, Matsumoto T, Hanabusa H,
Kamakura M, Ikeda Y, Negishi M.
Differential prevalence of HIV type 1 subtype B and CRF01_AE among different
sexual transmission groups in Tokyo, Japan, as revealed by subtype-specific PCR.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Nov;19(11):1057-63.
PMID: 14686327

3: Palmer S, Vuitton D, Gonzales MJ, Bassignot A, Shafer RW.
Reverse transcriptase and protease sequence evolution in two HIV-1-infected
couples.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Nov 1;31(3):285-90.
PMID: 12439203

4: Robbins KE, Weidle PJ, Brown TM, Saekhou AM, Coles B, Holmberg SD,
Folks TM, Kalish ML.
Molecular analysis in support of an investigation of a cluster of HIV-1-infected
women.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Oct 10;18(15):1157-61.
PMID: 12402955

5: Machuca R, Jorgensen LB, Theilade P, Nielsen C.
Molecular investigation of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 in a criminal case.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Sep;8(5):884-90.
PMID: 11527797

6: Hayman A, Moss T, Simmons G, Arnold C, Holmes EC,
Naylor-Adamson L, Hawkswell J, Allen K, Radford J, Nguyen-Van-Tam J,
Balfe P.
Phylogenetic analysis of multiple heterosexual transmission events involving
subtype b of HIV type 1.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 May 20;17(8):689-95.
PMID: 11429109

7: Yirrell DL, Goldberg DJ, Whitelaw J, McSharry C, Raeside F, Codere G.
Viral subtype and heterosexual acquisition of HIV infections diagnosed in
Scotland.
Sex Transm Infect. 1999 Dec;75(6):392-5.
PMID: 10754942

8: Masciotra S, Livellara B, Belloso W, Clara L, Tanuri A, Ramos AC,
Baggs J, Lal R, Pieniazek D.
Evidence of a high frequency of HIV-1 subtype F infections in a heterosexual
population in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Jul 1;16(10):1007-14.
PMID: 10890362

9: Kane CT, Montavon C, Toure MA, Faye MA, Ndiaye AG, Diallo AG,
Ndoye I, Liegeois F, Delaporte E, Mboup S, Peeters M.
Full-length genome sequencing of HIV type 1 group O viruses isolated
from a heterosexual transmission cluster in Senegal.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Aug 10;17(12):1211-6.
PMID: 11522190

10: Trask SA, Derdeyn CA, Fideli U, Chen Y, Meleth S, Kasolo F,
Musonda R, Hunter E, Gao F, Allen S, Hahn BH.
Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
transmission in a heterosexual cohort of discordant couples in Zambia.
J Virol. 2002 Jan;76(1):397-405.
PMID: 11739704

11: Lorenzo E, Herrera RJ, Lai S, Fischl MA, Hill MD.
The Tat and C2-V3 envelope genes in the molecular epidemiology of
human immunodeficiency virus-1.
Virology. 1996 Jul 15;221(2):310-7.
PMID: 8661441

12: Sabino EC, Shpaer EG, Morgado MG, Korber BT, Diaz RS, Bongertz V,
Cavalcante S, Galvao-Castro B, Mullins JI, Mayer A.
Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope genes
recombinant between subtypes B and F in two epidemiologically linked
individuals from Brazil.
J Virol. 1994 Oct;68(10):6340-6.
PMID: 8083973

13: Cleghorn FR, Jack N, Carr JK, Edwards J, Mahabir B, Sill A,
McDanal CB, Connolly SM, Goodman D, Bennetts RQ, O'Brien TR,
Weinhold KJ, Bartholomew C, Blattner WA, Greenberg ML.
A distinctive clade B HIV type 1 is heterosexually transmitted in Trinidad and
Tobago.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Sep 12;97(19):10532-7.
PMID: 10984542

14: Avila MM, Pando MA, Carrion G, Peralta LM, Salomon H, Carrillo MG,
Sanchez J, Maulen S, Hierholzer J, Marinello M, Negrete M, Russell KL, Carr JK.
Two HIV-1 epidemics in Argentina: different genetic subtypes associated
with different risk groups.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Apr 1;29(4):422-6.
PMID: 11917249

15: Yirrell DL, Pickering H, Palmarini G, Hamilton L, Rutemberwa A,
Biryahwaho B, Whitworth J, Brown AJ.
Molecular epidemiological analysis of HIV in sexual networks in Uganda.
AIDS. 1998 Feb 12;12(3):285-90.
PMID: 9517991

16 : Gilbart VL, Evans BG.
Heterosexual clusters of HIV infection.
Commun Dis Public Health. 2002 Dec;5(4):266-8.
PMID: 12564237

17 : Leitner T, Escanilla D, Franzen C, Uhlen M, Albert J.
Accurate reconstruction of a known HIV-1 transmission history by
phylogenetic tree analysis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 1;93(20):10864-9.
PMID: 88552

18 : Diaz RS, Zhang L, Busch MP, Mosley JW, Mayer A.
Divergence of HIV-1 quasispecies in an epidemiologic cluster.
AIDS. 1997 Mar 15;11(4):415-22.
PMID: 9084787

19: Trask SA, Derdeyn CA, Fideli U, Chen Y, Meleth S, Kasolo F, Musonda R,
Hunter E, Gao F, Allen S, Hahn BH.
Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission
in a heterosexual cohort of discordant couples in Zambia.
J Virol. 2002 Jan;76(1):397-405.
PMID: 11739704

20: Arnold C, Balfe P, Clewley JP.
Sequence distances between env genes of HIV-1 from individuals infected
from the same source: implications for the investigation of possible transmission
events.
Virology. 1995 Aug 1;211(1):198-203.
PMID: 7645211

Competing interests: None declared