Re: A reasonable request to the “HIV”/AIDS experts 21 April 2004
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Brian T Foley,
HIV Researcher
Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545

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Re: Re: A reasonable request to the “HIV”/AIDS experts

The Perth Group would like to know the name of one or two individuals who might be credited as being "the" discoverer(s) of HIV-1. It is my opinion that such credit can never go to any one individual or even a small group of individuals. There was a great deal of background work carried out between 1981 and 1983 which was critical for determining that AIDS (or GRID or whatever else it may have been referred to) was infectious, transmissible by heterosexual and homosexual intercourse but not by casual contact or insect vectors, able to pass through filters (i.e. apparently not a typical bacteria) and also transmissible by blood transfusions, blood products and mother to infant. See for example:

 

1

TITLE:   Possible transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome

         (AIDS) - California.

AUTHORS: [No authors listed]

SOURCE:  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982 Dec 10;31(48):652-4. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6819440

 

2

TITLE:   Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among patients

         with hemophilia A.

AUTHORS: [No authors listed]

SOURCE:  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982 Dec 10;31(48):644-6, 652. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6819439

 

3

TITLE:   Screening for risk of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome.

AUTHORS: Greenberg F, Enlow RW

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1982 Dec 9;307(24):1521-2. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6983029

 

4

TITLE:   Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a male homosexual with

         T-cell immune deficiency.

AUTHORS: Miller JR, Barrett RE, Britton CB, Tapper ML, Bahr GS, Bruno PJ,

      Marquardt MD, Hays AP, McMurtry JG, Weissman JB, Bruno MS

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1982 Dec 2;307(23):1436-8. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6290887

 

5

TITLE:   Differentiation of precursor T lymphocytes in man and delineation of

         the selective abnormalities in severe combined immune deficiency

         disease.

AUTHORS: Gelfand EW, Dosch HM

SOURCE:  Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1982 Dec;25(3):303-15. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6761022

 

6

TITLE:   Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): precautions for clinical

         and laboratory staffs.

AUTHORS: [No authors listed]

SOURCE:  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982 Nov 5;31(43):577-80. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6817061

 

7

TITLE:   The new epidemic. Immune deficiency, opportunistic infections and

         Kaposi's sarcoma.

AUTHORS: Allen J, Mellin G

SOURCE:  Am J Nurs. 1982 Nov;82(11):1718-22. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6982620

 

8

TITLE:   Attempted immune stimulation in the "gay compromise syndrome".

AUTHORS: Oswald GA, Theodossi A, Gazzard BG, Byrom NA, Fisher-Hoch SP

SOURCE:  Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1982 Oct 16;285(6348):1082. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6127138

 

9

TITLE:   Opportunistic infection in previously healthy women. Initial

         manifestations of a community-acquired cellular immunodeficiency.

AUTHORS: Masur H, Michelis MA, Wormser GP, Lewin S, Gold J, Tapper ML, Giron J,

      Lerner CW, Armstrong D, Setia U, Sender JA, Siebken RS, Nicholas P,

      Arlen Z, Maayan S, Ernst JA, Siegal FP, Cunningham-Rundles S

SOURCE:  Ann Intern Med. 1982 Oct;97(4):533-9.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6982014

 

10

TITLE:   Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)--United States.

AUTHORS: [No authors listed]

SOURCE:  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982 Sep 24;31(37):507-8, 513-4. No

         abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6815471

 

11

TITLE:   Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a young homosexual male with acquired

         immunodeficiency.

AUTHORS: Neuwirth J, Gutman I, Hofeldt AJ, Behrens M, Marquardt MD,

      Abramovsky-Kaplan I, Kelsey P, Odel J

SOURCE:  Ophthalmology. 1982 Jul;89(7):805-8.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6289218

 

12

TITLE:   Homosexual practices and immune deficits.

AUTHORS: Comfort A

SOURCE:  Lancet. 1982 Jun 19;1(8286):1422. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6123716

 

13

TITLE:   Opportunistic infections and immune deficiency in homosexual men.

AUTHORS: Mildvan D, Mathur U, Enlow RW, Romain PL, Winchester RJ, Colp C,

      Singman H, Adelsberg BR, Spigland I

SOURCE:  Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 1):700-4.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6283974

 

14

TITLE:   The epidemic of acquired immune dysfunction in homosexual men and its

         sequelae--opportunistic infections, Kaposi's sarcoma, and other

         malignancies: an update and interpretation.

AUTHORS: Levine AS

SOURCE:  Cancer Treat Rep. 1982 Jun;66(6):1391-5. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6282458

 

15

TITLE:   [Immune deficiency and Kaposi's disease in 2 young male homosexuals].

AUTHORS: Laroche L, Gorin I, Bach JF, Hewitt J

SOURCE:  Nouv Presse Med. 1982 May 8;11(21):1637-8. French. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6285284

 

16

TITLE:   Immune deficiency states--evaluation and management.

AUTHORS: Abdou NI

SOURCE:  J Kans Med Soc. 1982 May;83(5):249-51, 260. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 7097104

 

17

TITLE:   Use of steroid creams as a possible cause of immunosuppression in

         homosexuals.

AUTHORS: Neumann HH

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1982 Apr 15;306(15):935. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 7062975

 

18

TITLE:   Opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men.

AUTHORS: [No authors listed]

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1982 Apr 15;306(15):932-5. No abstract available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6278308

 

19

TITLE:   [The immune suppression syndrome in homosexual men. An epidemiological

         study from the Cancer Research Institute in Arhus].

AUTHORS: Biggar RJ, Melbye M, Ebbesen P, Andersen HK, Vestergaard BF

SOURCE:  Ugeskr Laeger. 1982 Mar 15;144(11):777-80. Danish. No abstract

         available.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 7101504

 

20

TITLE:   Disseminated mycobacterial histiocytosis due to M. Fortuitum

         associated with helper T-lymphocyte immune deficiency.

AUTHORS: Bultmann BD, Flad HD, Kaiserling E, Muller-Hermelink HK, Kratzsch G,

      Galle J, Schachenmayr W, Heimpel H, Wigger HJ, Haferkamp O

SOURCE:  Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol. 1982;395(2):217-25.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6980529

 

21

TITLE:   An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia:

         initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction.

AUTHORS: Masur H, Michelis MA, Greene JB, Onorato I, Stouwe RA, Holzman RS,

      Wormser G, Brettman L, Lange M, Murray HW, Cunningham-Rundles S

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1981 Dec 10;305(24):1431-8.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6975437

 

22

TITLE:   Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals, manifested by

         chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions.

AUTHORS: Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, Brown AE, Kornfeld SJ, Gold J, Hassett

      J, Hirschman SZ, Cunningham-Rundles C, Adelsberg BR, et al.

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1981 Dec 10;305(24):1439-44.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6272110

 

23

TITLE:   Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously

         healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular

         immunodeficiency.

AUTHORS: Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, Weisman JD, Fan PT, Wolf RA,

      Saxon A

SOURCE:  N Engl J Med. 1981 Dec 10;305(24):1425-31.

CIT. IDS:PMID: 6272109

 

 

Only after this and much, much more background work (such as identifying the fact that AIDS patients had an inverted CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio, which in turn required work that enabled immunologists to distinguish between these two classes of T-cells) had been done, was it even reasonable to begin looking for a virus that could infect CD4+ T-cells. See for example:

Ragni MV, Bontempo FA, Lewis JH, Spero JA, Rabin BS.
An immunologic study of spouses and siblings of asymptomatic hemophiliacs.
Blood. 1983 Dec;62(6):1297-9.
PMID: 64163

Tsoukas C, Gervais F, Fuks A, Guttmann RD, Strawczynski H, Shuster J, Gold P.
Immunologic dysfunction in patients with classic hemophilia receiving lyophilized factor VIII concentrates and cryoprecipitate.
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Oct 1;129(7):713-7.
PMID: 6225504

Pitchenik AE, Fischl MA, Spira TJ.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in low-risk patients.
Evidence for possible transmission by an asymptomatic carrier.
JAMA. 1983 Sep 9;250(10):1310-2.
PMID: 6224028

Schroff RW, Gottlieb MS, Prince HE, Chai LL, Fahey JL.
Immunological studies of homosexual men with immunodeficiency and Kaposi's sarcoma.
Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1983 Jun;27(3):300-14.
PMID: 6603314

The virologists who eventually isolate ("isolate" does not mean to make 100% pure, it only means to get the virus growing in cell cultures and be able to passage the virus from one culture to another) and characterize (serological characterization is critical, electron microspcopy only helps to determine what the virus looks like but all lentiviruses look alike and it is even possible to confuse a lentivirus with other classes of retorviruses by EM) the virus tend to be the heros in the press. However, culturing and characterizing a single isolate of the HIV-1 M group of viruses is neither the beginning, nor the end of HIV/AIDS research. Much work was done both before and after 1983.

Competing interests: None declared