Brian T. Foley,
Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM USA 87545
Send response to journal:
Re: Re: Re: Basic requests which remain unanswered by Brian Foley and Christopher Noble
The Perth Group Wrote:
"In our rapid
response "Basic requests which remain unanswered by Brian Foley and
Christopher Noble, 24 December 2003, we tried to re-direct the debate
to the basics and ask for references with data which prove some of the
fundamental claims regarding HIV.
To date neither Brian Foley nor Christopher Noble nor any of the other
renown HIV experts, who apparently follow this debate, have given us
such data. Does their silence indicate that such data does not exist? "
No. It means
that I do not feel that it is a productive use of my time to spoon feed
you all of the research that has been done on HIV-1, HIV-2 and other
lentiviruses over the past 20 years.
I will spend a little time answering your questions of Dec 24, 2003 now:
1. "Where are the experiments which prove HIV isolation, sexual transmission and antibody specificity?".
("A simple request from the Perth Group" - 5th June)
Answered 23 May 2003
What part of "infectious molecular clone" do you fail to understand?
How do you think the 3D strucutres of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV proteins
have been determined using X-ray crystalography, if not with purified
HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV proteins?
Why is it that no virus has ever been "isolated" following the
exact protocol you describe? And why, if no virus has ever been
"isolated" to your satisfaction, do you only question HIV/AIDS and not
other virus/disease (or syndrome) relationships? Which of the following
could have been published without the study of pure isolates?
(1) Hill CP, Worthylake D, Bancroft DP, Christensen AM, Sundquist WI.
Crystal structures of the trimeric human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 matrix protein: implications for membrane association and
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2;93(7):3099-104.
(2) Morikawa Y, Zhang WH, Hockley DJ, Nermut MV, Jones IM.
Detection of a trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag
intermediate is dependent on sequences in the matrix protein, p17.
J Virol. 1998 Sep;72(9):7659-63.
(3) Gatanaga H, Suzuki Y, Tsang H, Yoshimura K, Kavlick MF, Nagashima K, Gorelick RJ, Mardy S, Tang C, Summers MF, Mitsuya H.
Amino acid substitutions in Gag protein at non-cleavage sites are
indispensable for the development of a high multitude of HIV-1
resistance against protease inhibitors.
J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 22;277(8):5952-61. Epub 2001 Dec 10.
(4) Turner BG, Summers MF.
Structural biology of HIV.
J Mol Biol. 1999 Jan 8;285(1):1-32. Review.
(5) Reed-Inderbitzin E, Maury W.
Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled by LTR sequences.
Virology. 2003 Sep 30;314(2):680-95.
(6) Komoto S, Tsuji S, Ibrahim MS, Li YG, Warachit J, Taniguchi K, Ikuta K.
The vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plays a
protective role against virus-induced apoptosis in primary CD4(+) T
J Virol. 2003 Oct;77(19):10304-13.
(7) Rue SM, Roos JW, Amzel LM, Clements JE, Barber SA.
Hydrogen bonding at a conserved threonine in lentivirus capsid is required for virus replication.
J Virol. 2003 Jul;77(14):8009-18.
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Montefiori DC, Pavlakis GN, Marthas ML, Ruprecht RM, Felber BK.
Rev-independent simian immunodeficiency virus strains are nonpathogenic in neonatal macaques.
J Virol. 2002 Jan;76(1):96-104.
(9) Pavlakis GN
The Molecular Biology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1.
In: De Vita Jr VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA eds.
AIDS: Biology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention.
Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publ., 1997. p. 45-74.
(10) Levy J
HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, 2nd Edition
Book ISBN: 1-55581-122-1 ASM Press 1997
Answered Numerous time above, for example April 10, 2003:
(1) Jacquez JA, Koopman JS, Simon CP, Longini IM Jr.
Role of the primary infection in epidemics of HIV infection in gay cohorts.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994; 7(11):1169-84.
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HIV drug resistance and molecular epidemiology in patients with primary HIV infection.
Abstract 754, 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.
(3) Pilcher CD et al.
Sexual transmission during the incubation period of primary HIV infection.
JAMA 2001; 286(14): 1713-4.
(4) Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo NK, et al.
Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
N Engl J Med 342(13):921-9, 2000.
(5) Pilcher CD, Shugars DC, Fiscus SA, Miller WC,
Menezes P, Giner J, Dean B, Robertson K, Hart CE, Lennox JL, Eron JJ Jr, Hicks CB.
HIV in body fluids during primary HIV infection: implications for pathogenesis, treatment and public health.
AIDS 2001 May 4;15(7):837-45.
(6) Chakraborty H, et al.
Viral burden in genital secretions determines male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV-1: a probabilistic empiric model.
AIDS 2001: 15(5):621-7.
(7) Leitner T, Escanilla D, Franzen C, Uhlen M, Albert J.
Accurate reconstruction of a known HIV-1 transmission history by phylogenetic tree analysis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 1;93(20):10864-9.
(8) Machuca R, Jorgensen LB, Theilade P, Nielsen C.
Molecular investigation of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a criminal case.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Sep;8(5):884-90.
(9) Birch CJ, McCaw RF, Bulach DM, Revill PA, Carter JT, Tomnay J,
Hatch B, Middleton TV, Chibo D, Catton MG, Pankhurst JL, Breschkin AM,
Locarnini SA, Bowden DS.
Molecular analysis of human immunodeficiency virus strains associated with a case of criminal transmission of the virus.
J Infect Dis. 2000 Sep;182(3):941-4. Epub 2000 Aug 17.
(10) Albert J, Wahlberg J, Leitner T, Escanilla D, Uhlen M.
Analysis of a rape case by direct sequencing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol and gag genes.
J Virol. 1994 Sep;68(9):5918-24.
(11) Sato H, Shiino T, Kodaka N, Taniguchi K, Tomita Y, Kato K, Miyakuni T, Takebe Y.
Evolution and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 subtype E gp120 V3 sequences following horizontal and
vertical virus transmission in a single family.
Virol. 1999 May;73(5):3551-9.
(12) Albert J, Wahlberg J, Leitner T, Escanilla D, Uhlen M.
Analysis of a rape case by direct sequencing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol and gag genes.
J Virol. 1994 Sep;68(9):5918-24.
(13) Robbins KE, Weidle PJ, Brown TM, Saekhou AM, Coles B, Holmberg SD, Folks TM, Kalish ML.
Molecular analysis in support of an investigation of a cluster of HIV-1-infected women.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Oct 10;18(15):1157-61.
(14) Kato S, Saito R, Hiraishi Y, Kitamura N, Matsumoto T, Hanabusa H, Kamakura M, Ikeda Y, Negishi M.
Differential prevalence of HIV type 1 subtype B and CRF01_AE among
different sexual transmission groups in Tokyo, Japan, as revealed by
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Nov;19(11):1057-63.
(15) Tovanabutra S, Watanaveeradej V, Viputtikul K, De Souza M,
Razak MH, Suriyanon V, Jittiwutikarn J, Sriplienchan S, Nitayaphan S,
Benenson MW, Sirisopana N, Renzullo PO, Brown AE, Robb ML, Beyrer C,
Celentano DD, McNeil JG, Birx DL, Carr JK, McCutchan FE.
A new circulating recombinant form, CRF15_01B, reinforces the linkage between IDU and heterosexual epidemics in Thailand.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Jul;19(7):561-7.
(16) Tovanabutra S, Robison V, Wongtrakul J, Sennum S, Suriyanon V, Kingkeow D, Kawichai S, Tanan P, Duerr A, Nelson KE.
Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Mar 1;29(3):275-83.
(17) Nelson KE, Rungruengthanakit K, Margolick J, Suriyanon V,
Niyomthai S, de Boer MA, Kawichai S, Robison V, Celentano DD,
Nagachinta T, Duerr A.
High rates of transmission of subtype E human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 among heterosexual couples in Northern Thailand: role of
sexually transmitted diseases and immune compromise.
J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):337-43.
(18) Pedraza MA, del Romero J, Roldan F, Garcia S, Ayerbe MC, Noriega AR, Alcami J.
Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 is associated with high plasma
viral load levels and a positive viral isolation in the infected
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999 Jun 1;21(2):120-5.
(19) Ragni MV, Faruki H, Kingsley LA.
Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission and viral load in hemophilic patients.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jan 1;17(1):42-5.
(1) Zwick MB, Komori HK, Stanfield RL, Church S, Wang M, Parren PW, Kunert R, Katinger H, Wilson IA, Burton DR.
The long third complementarity-determining region of the heavy
chain is important in the activity of the broadly neutralizing
anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody 2F5.
J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):3155-61.
(2) Darbha R, Phogat S, Labrijn AF, Shu Y, Gu Y, Andrykovitch M,
Zhang MY, Pantophlet R, Martin L, Vita C, Burton DR, Dimitrov DS, Ji X.
Crystal structure of the broadly cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing Fab X5 and fine mapping of its epitope.
Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 17;43(6):1410-7.
(3) Johnson WE, Sanford H, Schwall L, Burton DR, Parren PW, Robinson JE, Desrosiers RC.
Assorted mutations in the envelope gene of simian immunodeficiency
virus lead to loss of neutralization resistance against antibodies
representing a broad spectrum of specificities.
J Virol. 2003 Sep;77(18):9993-10003.
(4) Zhang PF, Bouma P, Park EJ, Margolick JB, Robinson JE, Zolla-Pazner S, Flora MN, Quinnan GV Jr.
A variable region 3 (V3) mutation determines a global
neutralization phenotype and CD4-independent infectivity of a human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope associated with a broadly
cross-reactive, primary virus-neutralizing antibody response.
J Virol. 2002 Jan;76(2):644-55.
(5) Chanbancherd P, Limpairojn N, de Souza MS, Jugsudee A, Julananto P, Tienamporn P, Leucha W, Tasaniyananda C, Brown AE.
Evaluation of a new fourth-generation microwell enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay for detection of HIV-1 subtype B and E antibodies.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001 Mar;32(1):177-9.
(6) D'Souza MP, Livnat D, Bradac JA, Bridges SH.
Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 primary isolates by neutralization assays: performance criteria
for selecting candidate antibodies for clinical trials.
AIDS Clinical Trials Group Antibody Selection Working Group.
J Infect Dis. 1997 May;175(5):1056-62.
(7) van Binsbergen J, Keur W, vd Graaf M, Siebelink A, Jacobs A, de Rijk D, Toonen J, Zekeng L, Afane Ze E, Gurtler LG.
Reactivity of a new HIV-1 group O third generation A-HIV-1/-2 assay
with an unusual HIV-1 seroconversion panel and HIV-1 group O/group M
J Virol Methods. 1997 Dec;69(1-2):29-37.
(8) Bhore AV, Sastry J, Patke D, Gupte N, Bulakh PM, Lele S,
Karmarkar A, Bharucha KE, Shrotri A, Pisal H, Suryawanshi N, Tripathy
Risbud AR, Paranjape RS, Shankar AV, Kshirsagar A, Phadke MA, Joshi PL,
Brookmeyer RS, Bollinger RC Jr.
Sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV testing of pregnant women in India.
Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Jan;14(1):37-41.
(9) Weber B, Gurtler L, Thorstensson R, Michl U, Muhlbacher A,
Burgisser P, Villaescusa R, Eiras A, Gabriel C, Stekel H, Tanprasert S,
Oota S, Silvestre MJ, Marques C, Ladeira M, Rabenau H, Berger A,
Schmitt U, Melchior W.
Multicenter evaluation of a new automated fourth-generation human
immunodeficiency virus screening assay with a sensitive antigen
detection module and high specificity.
J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jun;40(6):1938-46.
are the experiments which prove HIV isolation and thus the existence of
the HIV genome, sexual transmission and antibody specificity?
("The request remains the same and is still pure and simple" - 12th
Answered again above.
3. "Where is the proof for HIV purification by any method?"
("Where is the proof for HIV purification by any method?" - 19th June)
Answered again above.
4. "Could Brian Foley or anyone else please give us a few of the
"thousands" of references where HIV-1 has been separated "from the vast
majority of other material", in other words, purified?"
A further plea for references on HIV purification" - 9th July)
abundantly clear that you do not understand molecular biology, and
therefor you cannot understand what an infectious molecular clone of
HIV-1 or any other virus is. Could you please stop repeating yourseld,
and tell me which concepts of cloning and sequecing genes (including
the genes of HIV-1) you fail to understand?
5. "If so, we implore him [Brian Foley] to provide a few references
that prove: (i) the molecules used in "cloning of a complete viral
originated from HIV particles;
All clones of
HIV-1 originated either from HIV-1 particles or from integrated
proviral DNA. Only the infectious molecular clones can go on to produce
new infectious HIV-1 particles.
genome of HIV-1 is no different than cloning the genome of any other
virus, nor cloning a specific gene such as the gene for human insulin.
There is no requirement for having "pure" insulin, before the insulin
gene can be cloned, for example.
example from another area of science could help. To use X-rays to
diagnose tibia bone fractures in humans, we do not have to have 100%
"pure" isolated human tibia bones, nor do we require that X-rays be
"isolated". We can deduce, from the use of X-rays to diagnose fractures
in femurs of humans or tibias of dogs, that the technique will work for
diagnosing fractured tibias in humans. The fact that I cannot find the
one scientific paper that "proves" that X-rays can be accurate and
specific in diagnosing fractured human tibias, is not a valid reason
for my questioning whether X-rays can in fact be used for that purpose.
biological techniques used to study HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV, HCV, SARS virus,
polio viruses, and other viruses are not unique to viruses. They are
used in nearly all areas of biology. Forensic DNA investigations of
crime scenes do not require that the criminal nor the victim be
"isolated" in order to tell if the DNA in some blood at a kitchen crime
scene came from a human or some beef that was cooked for dinner. Just
as human DNA is readily distinguishable from bovine DNA, so too is
lentiviral DNA (or RNA) is readily distinguishable from T-cell leukemia
virus DNA (or RNA).
and many other lentiviruses, as well as other non-lentivirus
retroviruses have indeed been "isolated". The term "isolate" can be
used to describe a 100% pure molecule such as a plasmid DNA molecule
containing an infectious molecular clone of HIV-1. But most often, no
molecule is made 100% pure, it is almost always found in an aqueous
solution or with salt ions associated with it. The term "isolate" is
more often used to describe a molecule or class of molecules being
seperated from others of its kind. Think of a prisoner being "isolated"
in a jail. The viruses of type A in petri dish A are "isolated" from
the viruses of type B in petri dish B, such that A/B recombinants
cannot be formed unless some material from dish A is transferred to
dish B or visa versa. Whereas many bacteria form discrete colonies on
the agar in petri dishes, many other organisms cannot be "isolated"
using the streak-plating or dillution/plating techniques. This does not
mean that those organisms cannot be "isolated", it only means that
other methods besides streak/plating must be used.
organisms, whether they are truly self-replicating like most bacteria,
or they require tho cooperation of another organism as do viruses and
some bacteria (or even mammals, which even when "cloned" require a
living host uterus in which to develop) can be cloned. Production of
new progeny form the naked DNA (or the isolated nucleus with DNA and
chromatin proteins etc in the case of cloned eukaryotes) is indeed
proof positive that the DNA came from the same type of organism as the
progeny. A sheep nucleus put into a human cell will not produce a
human. Likewise an HIV-1 M group subtype B infectious molecular clone
will produce only HIV-1 M group subtype B virions when transfected into
ii) cloning of HIV;
SE, Pugach P, Kunstman KJ, Taylor J, Stanfield RL, Snyder A, Strizki
JM, Riley J, Baroudy BM, Wilson IA, Korber BT, Wolinsky SM, Moore JP.
Genetic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from a small-molecule CCR5 inhibitor.
J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):2790-807.
(2) Buckley KA, Li PL, Khimani AH, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Liska V, Anderson DC, McClure HM, Ruprecht RM.
Convergent evolution of SIV env after independent inoculation of rhesus macaques with infectious proviral DNA.
Virology. 2003 Aug 1;312(2):470-80.
(3) Kourtis AP, Ibegbu CC, Scinicariello F, Oh CY, McClure HM.
SHIV-KB9 infection of rhesus monkeys does not always cause disease-contribution of host immune factors and thymic output.
Virology. 2002 Nov 10;303(1):47-57.
(4) Mukai T, Komoto S, Kurosu T, Palacios JA, Li YG, Auwanit W, Tatsumi M, Ikuta K.
Construction and characterization of an infectious molecular clone derived from the CRF01_AE primary isolate of HIV type 1.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 May 20;18(8):585-9.
(5) Novelli P, Vella C, Oxford J, Daniels RS.
Construction and characterization of a full-length HIV-1(92UG001) subtype D infectious molecular clone.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Jan 1;18(1):85-8.
(6) Ndung'u T, Lu Y, Renjifo B, Touzjian N, Kushner N, Pena-Cruz V, Novitsky VA, Lee TH, Essex M.
Infectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus with human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C from an African isolate: rhesus
J Virol. 2001 Dec;75(23):11417-25.
(7) Gao F, Trask SA, Hui H, Mamaeva O, Chen Y, Theodore TS, Foley BT, Korber BT, Shaw GM, Hahn BH.
Molecular characterization of a highly divergent HIV type 1 isolate
obtained early in the AIDS epidemic from the Democratic Republic of
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Aug 10;17(12):1217-22.
(8) Takahoko M, Tobiume M, Ishikawa K, Ampofo W, Yamamoto N, Matsuda M, Tatsumi M.
Infectious DNA clone of HIV type 1 A/G recombinant (CRF02_AG) replicable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Jul 20;17(11):1083-7.
(iii) the HIV "Genetic sequences" in his database originated from HIV particles?
The citations I provided on heterosexual transmission, for example the
one by Thomas Leitner (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct
1;93(20):10864-9.) are also useful in this regard, because it shows
that both the viral sequences and the transmission chains go
hand-in-hand in co-validating each other.
We would be
grateful if Brian Foley could provide us with references showing HIV-1
preparations on which "No apparent differences in physics appearance
could be discerned among the viral particles in these regions" as
Sinoussi et al did and with "a high degree of homogeneity" and "virtual
absence of DNA" as
Crawford et al did?. So we repeat "where is the proof for HIV
purification by any method?" That is, give us the published
references." ("References on HIV purification " - 3rd July)
organisms on earth are identical. Most E. coli cells look identical to
all other E. coli cells and they also look identical to Salmonella
typhimurium cells. All humans probably look alike to a dog or a
chimpanzee, but we humans tend to think we each look unique. Physical
appearance is not the key to determining all biological properties of
organisms. All lentiviruses look alike by electron microscopy, but
there is no evidence that equine infectious anemia virus can infect
primate cells, let alone cause disease in primates. Some retroviruses
are spherical and symetrical so they appear the same no matter what
orientation they are in. Lentiviruses have a cone-shaped core, and are
thus not symetrical and do not appear identical viewed end-on or from
There is no
requirement that viral cultures appear to be 100% "pure" in order to
study them. In fact retrovirus preparations that appear to be "pure"
are most often comprised of heterogeneous populations of virus
particles because the reverse transciptase is inaccurate and mutations
accrue in the virus as it is grown in culture. This is one of the many
reasons why the use of infectious molecular clones, rather than
cultured virus, is preferable and in some cases abosolutely necessary
for studying retroviruses.
6. "We are ignorant of the evidence which proves the existence of HIV.
Would Christopher Noble please enlighten us with some references?"
("HIV" genomic variations - 31st July)
7. "We would
be grateful if Brian Foley would provide us with references containing
electron micrographs from either the 1.16gm/ml band or cultures showing
identical HIV-1 M group and HIV-1 O group viruses?. So we again ask if
Brian Foley would provide us with references which prove that the ?HIV?
sequences originated from a unique infectious retroviral particle,
HIV?. All learning begins with being educated in the basics. The basic
information we have been repeatedly asking for is the following:
(a) A few references which prove that the ?purified HIV?, that is, the
1.16gm/ml band from which the ?HIV? genome and proteins originated,
contains particles in which ?No apparent differences in physical
appearance could be discerned? and the particles have the morphology of
(b) A few
references that prove: (i) that the molecules used in ?cloning of a
complete viral [HIV] genome? originated from HIV particles; (ii) that
the HIV ?Genetic Sequences? in his databases originated from HIV
(c) A few references which prove that the HIV antibody tests are
specific. To claim proof for specificity there MUST BE at least one
study and a few confirmatory studies where the antibody antigen
reaction (assuming that the antigens are HIV) is compared with the
present or absence of HIV, that is, with HIV isolation/purification.
This study must include a statistically significant number of both
patients who have AIDS as well as patients who do not have AIDS but are
sick. In addition, the tests must be done blind.
I am not sure
exactly what you are requiring here. Can you show me one example of a
viral (preferably retroviral, but anyy virus will do) EIA, ELISA or
Western Blot test kit (or even a test that has not yet been
FDA-approved for serological testing of any species) that has met all
of your criteria? Do the test kits that are the basis of slaughtering
millions of chickens each year because they are seropositive for Avian
Leukosis Virus serotype C meet your criteria for example?
As far as I know, the requirements you are asking for are not only
completely unnecessary but also impossible, such that no EIA or ELISA
could possibly meet them.
(d) A few
references which prove that HIV is heterosexually transmitted. Any
study claiming proof for heterosexual transmission MUST satisfy at
least the following conditions: · Be prospective; · Use tests which
have been proven to be specific; · Have a statistically meaningful
population; · The results must be statistically significant and must
exclude any other possible route of infection; · There should be at
least a few confirmatory studies." ("Re: Politics vs. Science" - 5th
you show me publications which meet those same criteria for any other
disease or condition? Is there any such proof for example, that
pregnancy is the result of heterosexual activity?
8. "As we have already pointed out to Brian Foley in our previous rapid
response "HIV Genome, Clones and Sequences" (18 July 2003), what
Montagnier?s and Gallo?s groups defined as "HIV" genome is nothing more
than a poly(A)-RNA which in sucrose density gradients banded at the
1.16gm/ml. They claimed that the band represented "purified" virus but
presented no EM proof. According to Montagnier the reason for this is
because in the "purified" virus
they could find no particles with the morphology typical of
retroviruses?. Would Brian Foley please answer the following question:
Isn?t it true that
this is how the "HIV" genome was obtained? If not, would Brian Foley
please tell us where we are wrong??. Since "HIV-1(MN)" has been used by
laboratories around the world included Bess? laboratory, in his view
would Brian Foley please tell us which of Gallo?s evidence proves the
"HIV-1(MN)"? "("Questions and Answers" - 13 October)
ask Robert Gallo about viruses that he isolated. But you could also
look beyond 1983-1984 at viruses that have been isolated by hundreds of
other groups around the world. Robert Gallo's lab was one of the first
to isolate and characterize an HIV-1 M group subtype B virus, but since
that time hundreds of other researchers have re-confirmed that work.