James J Whitehead,
Long Term Survivor, Member AltHeal,Clinnical trials volunteer.
40A Josephine Avenue, London SW2 2LA
In reply to Mr Christopher Nobels interesting question the following sprung to mind.
1: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990 May;87(10):3972-6
Polyclonal B-cell activation reveals antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in HIV-1-seronegative individuals.
Jehuda-Cohen T, Slade BA, Powell JD, Villinger F, De B, Folks TM, McClure HM, Sell KW, Ahmed-Ansari A.
Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)- infected individuals is of paramount importance for the control of the spread of AIDS worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of screening centers throughout the world rely on serological techniques. As such, clinically asymptomatic but HIV-infected, seronegative individuals are rarely identified. In this report we show that 18% (30/165) of seronegative individuals who were considered to be a unique cohort of patients at high risk for HIV infection had circulating B cells that, UPON IN VITRO POLYCLONAL ACTIVATION WITH POKEWEED M I T O G E N, produced antibodies reactive with HIV. "
"Furthermore, polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA obtained from aliquots of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these seronegative but pokeweed mitogen assay-positive individuals tested revealed the presence of HIV-specific sequences in a significant number of samples. "
"In addition, depletion of CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-seronegative individuals prior to in vitro culture with pokeweed mitogen resulted in increased sensitivity for detecting HIV-reactive antibodies.This assay has obvious epidemiological implications, ESPECIALY IN THE CASE OF HIGH RISK GROUPS, and also provides a simple technique to enhance detection of HIV-infected individuals. Of further interest is the determination of the mechanisms related to the lack of HIV-specific antibodies in the serum of these infected individuals."
pokeweed mitogen A mitogen for B cells. Any of the lectins derived from the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, all of which will stimulate T-cells. Binds b -D-acetylglucosamine. mitogens Substances which cause cells, particularly lymphocytes, to undergo cell division.
"Montagnier and his associate David Klatzmann were the first to draw attention to the fact that LAV infection of T4 cells in vitro does not lead to HIV expression unless the cells are stimulated. "Infection of resting T4 cells does not lead to viral replication or to expression of viral antigens on the cell surface, while stimulation by lectins or antigens of the same cells results in production of viral particles, antigenic expression and the cytopathic effect" (Klatzmann and Montagnier, 1986). Gallo also expressed the view that without "activation" the T4 cells do not express virus (Zagury et al., 1986). But, apparently, they did not realise that oxidative phenomena are implicated in human T-cell stimulation (Sekkat et al., 1988).” (69 )"
"In 1992 in Research in Immunology, an Institut Pasteur publication, we wrote: “As long ago as 1983, one of us (E.P.-E.) proposed that oxidative mechanisms are of critical significance in the genesis of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). A prediction of this hypothesis was that the mechanisms responsible for AIDS could be reversed by the administration of reducing agents, especially those containing sulphydryl groups (SH groups). The discovery of HIV resulted in a broadening of this hypothesis in that it considered oxidative stress as a principal mechanism in both the development of AIDS and expression of HIV”, including a positive antibody test and the appearance of any novel RNAs.2-4"
"Although no mechanism is mentioned, in 2000 Montagnier accepted that novel, non-viral RNAs could arise following exposure to non-infectious agents. At present we cannot claim proof that the positive PCR tests are the result of the oxidative stress to which the patients and cultures are exposed. However, the fact that all the other predictions of this theory have been proven (see Addendum “Looking back on the oxidative stress theory of AIDS”8) indicates this may be the case. "
IL-2 therapy is not used by itself and unless the patient has a stable undetectable "viral load" because IL-2 is known to increase "viral - load" and its a mitogen there for oxidising and used to culture hiv expression.
Vice versa taken from AltHeal Appeal
"In 1983 Luc Montagnier and in 1984 Robert Gallo stimulated cell cultures from tissues of AIDS patients with numerous oxidising (16) and mitogenic chemical agents and observed a number of phenomena which, long before the AIDS era, were known to be non-specific. By 1986 Montagnier and Gallo acknowledged that the “HIV” phenomena cannot be detected unless the cells are stimulated (17, 18). "
"Subsequently researchers including Anthony Fauci, showed that when stimulated cell cultures are treated with reducing agents this greatly suppresses the appearance of such phenomena (4). >From the beginning of the AIDS era there has been evidence that individuals belonging to the AIDS risk groups are exposed to oxidising agents. In a 1998 study, researchers from Canada reported that supplementation of vitamin E and C reduces oxidative stress in “HIV” positives and produces a trend towards a reduction in “viral load”(19)."
I quote:“This study is the first randomised controlled trial to demonstrate that, in an HIV-positive population, daily supplementation of 800 IU vitamin E and 1000 mg vitamin C significantly decreases oxidative stress and produces a trend towards a reduction in HIV viral load suggesting that there may be some clinical benefit worthy of larger clinical trials. Since combination antiretroviral therapies containing protease inhibitors are limited for economic reasons to only about 10% of HIV infected individuals in the world, consideration of the potential for this antioxidant therapy remains important for the developing world. It could have great benefit, perhaps similar to the effect of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality in developing countries.”
Competing interests: Long term survivor, Member AltHeal, Non Toxic anti "aids" clinnical trials volunteer